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Model for O2, CO2, and N2 in airways and O2, CO2 in blood of circulating system. Lu et al 2001.

Model number: 0145

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 This model is based on the gas exchange model presented in Lu et al. (2001) Am J 
 Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 281: H2661-2679. It is coupled with the airway mechanics 
 model referenced in the same publication. The system describes oxygen, carbon 
 dioxide and nitrogen concentrations in three lumped airway compartments and the 
 oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in two lumped circulatory compartments. 
 Influence of pCO2 on hemoglobin binding of O2 is included.  


Governing equations for airway mechanics

The equations for this model may be viewed by running the JSim model applet and clicking on the Source tab at the bottom left of JSim's Run Time graphical user interface. The equations are written in JSim's Mathematical Modeling Language (MML). See the Introduction to MML and the MML Reference Manual. Additional documentation for MML can be found by using the search option at the Physiome home page.

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 Lu K, Clark JW, Ghorbel FH, Ware DL, Bidani A. A human cardiopulmonary system model 
 applied to the analysis of the Valsalva maneuver. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 
 281: H2661-H2679, 2001.

 Athanasiades A, Ghorbel F, Clark JW, Niranjan SC, Olansen J, Zwischenberger JB, 
 Bidani A. Energy analysis of a nonlinear model of the normal human lung. Journal 
 of Biological Systems. 8(2): 115-139, 2000.

 Ohm GS. Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet, 1827

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Key Terms

Respiratory system, air-blood gas exchange, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, ventilation, breathing mechanics, diffusion, alveolar flux, Publication, Tutorial

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Posted by: BEJ


Please cite in any publication for which this software is used and send an email with the citation and, if possible, a PDF file of the paper to:
Or send a copy to:
The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

[This page was last modified 14Mar18, 3:17 pm.]

Model development and archiving support at provided by the following grants: NIH U01HL122199 Analyzing the Cardiac Power Grid, 09/15/2015 - 05/31/2020, NIH/NIBIB BE08407 Software Integration, JSim and SBW 6/1/09-5/31/13; NIH/NHLBI T15 HL88516-01 Modeling for Heart, Lung and Blood: From Cell to Organ, 4/1/07-3/31/11; NSF BES-0506477 Adaptive Multi-Scale Model Simulation, 8/15/05-7/31/08; NIH/NHLBI R01 HL073598 Core 3: 3D Imaging and Computer Modeling of the Respiratory Tract, 9/1/04-8/31/09; as well as prior support from NIH/NCRR P41 RR01243 Simulation Resource in Circulatory Mass Transport and Exchange, 12/1/1980-11/30/01 and NIH/NIBIB R01 EB001973 JSim: A Simulation Analysis Platform, 3/1/02-2/28/07.